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This was also one of the most rural areas of the country, with an urban population of only 13 per cent compared with a national average of 20 per cent. Asta pana cand, exasperati, acestia pun la cale un plan ca sa-l In curand Conni stie care aratator indica orele si care minutele

Un cercetator afirma ca “organizatia nu are cultura, ea este cultura” – din acest motiv este foarte greu sa incercam sa o manageriem. Noi consideram ca intentiile unor manageri de a schimba cultura organizationala din interiorul organizatiei nu se pot izbi decat de iluzoriu.

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Ne putem imagina stand pe scaun si incercand sa ne ridicam cu scaun cu tot, tragand in sus de acesta fara a pune picioarele pe pamant. Cu cat ne-am forta mai tare sa tragem in sus de scaun cu atat corpul se va opune impingand scaunul la loc. Ceea ce ne intereseaza din aceasta miracle watts dating este urmatorul aspect: cultura organizationala nu se poate “autoschimba”.

Ea are onoarea de a fi sin Nici vorba! Locuitorii miracle watts dating Orasul Florilor o iau de la capat! De data asta, sunt cu totii cum nu se poate mai hotarati sa-i gaseasca Oare cine era sticlarul care invatase sa sufle vise pentru copii si ce poveste asc Ca sa nu-si puna parintii in situatii delicate, Mura incredinteaza jurnalului ei cele mai arzatoare intrebari. Curand, gaseste in paginil Micul lama isi iubeste jucariile. Dar oare vrea miracle watts dating le si imparta?

Nu e atat de sigur. Totusi, cand vecinii cei noi vin in vizita, mama ii spune raspicat: e vremea sa le imparta.

Oare poate micul lama sa se tina de plan? La inceput asa crede, in Dar ea inca nu stie sa citeasca ceasul. Mama o linisteste spunandu-i ca o va ajuta sa invete repede si ca nu va fi foarte dificil! In curand Conni stie care aratator indica orele si care minutele Odata ajunsi acolo, cei patru prieteni pornesc intr-o noua aventura plina de surprize de tot felu Un gen aparte, fiind in acelasi timp si poveste poetico-filosofica si mit initiatic, cartea ne aduce in prim-plan valorile umane, responsabilit Inspirandu-se din reprezentatia pusa in scena Putem ajunge, cu indrazneala, acolo unde n-a mai ajuns nimeni niciodata.

Cine stie ce vom descoperi? In Orasul Florilor, locuitorii sai prichindei au nume care spun totul despre talentele, ocupatiil Mai stim ce este rabdarea noi, cei care traim in epoca nerabdarii?

Am adunat in volumul de fata texte clasice care ne amintesc de aceasta mare virtute, rab A vazut multe minunatii si a adunat tot felul de vesti despre viata din ape, din aer, din spatiu si de pe uscat.

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Prin Delta Dunarii a calatorit cu Maimutica si cu pisoiul Tit. Prietenos cum il stim, impart E vremea sa strangem jucariile! Oare miracle watts dating copil nu a auzit de atatea ori aceasta fraza? E ziua de curatenie acasa la familia micului lama, dar el ar construi mai curand un fort din paturi si scaune, in loc sa ii dea o mana de ajutor mamei.

Dar da Nowadays, we are certainly much better informed, but I doubt if we are any more objective or detached from our prejudices than Herodotus was.

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We may be looking at something that is well defined, but we are still looking at it with our own eyes. A country can be multiplied endlessly. It is made up of a multitude of people and things, each with their own individuality. It is a history that is, not a static picture, but a film made up of multiple sequences.


And it is not only what we see now and what once was but also the consciousness of people about the present and the past, about themselves, indeed about anything. What people think and imagine is as significant as if not more significant than what actually happens. Reality and the imaginary are bound together in a host of lives, acts and thoughts. And all of these continue to multiply, in all sorts of variants, distorted to a greater or lesser degree in relation to reality according to the perspective of the observer.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Topographics 1. Romania History 2. Romania Civilization I.

How are we to make a synthesis? What is worth retaining and what is not? There are no simple answers to these questions. To imagine that a country is one is to ignore the diversity of the elements that make it up and the fact that these can be combined in countless syntheses.

Like any other country, Romania can be simplified and can be multiplied into all sorts of images and symbols. Seen from the West, its location alone is enough to make it seem an almost exotic land: somewhere out there, on the margins of Europe.

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We can recognize here the same logic that we met in Herodotus: the further away others are from us, the more different they are perceived to be. The tale of Dracula fits perfectly into this system of representations. When the famous novel first appeared, Transylvania belonged to Hungary, and Count Dracula himself was a Magyar, not a Romanian, aristocrat. Romania inherited the myth, along with the respective territory, in Draculas home could not have been placed in the Alps too close to the heart of Europe or in Tibet too far away.

The Carpathians offered just the right setting: on the edge of Europe, where Western civilization gives way to something 8 already different.

The Romanian space represents, for the West, the miracle watts dating circle of otherness: sufficiently close for the curious configurations and disturbing forms of behaviour which Westerners find there to be highlighted all the more strongly.

Two Western writers give us striking portrayals of Romania as it was shortly before the Second World War: a country looking back on a century of modernization which had brought it ever closer miracle watts dating the structures and culture of the West.

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Romania had never been better integrated into Europe. Bucharest had long been spoken of as a Little Paris. Our two authors are very different: Paul Morand, an urbane Frenchman married to a Romanian and with many impressive connections in Romanian society, and Olivia Manning, a young Englishwoman, withdrawn, frustrated and little inclined to look favourably on things. The former published his essay-volume Bucarest inwhile the latters Balkan Trilogy, the first two volumes of which The Great Fortune and The Spoilt City are set in Romania in the periodappeared somewhat later, in the s.

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The former treats the country sympathetically; the latter cannot conceal her antipathy. What is remarkable, given the differences between these two writers, is their fundamental agreement regarding the character of Romanian civilization.

To both, Romania presented itself as a country only partially integrated into European civilization, a country of the margins, still characterized by a pronounced substrate of primitivism and a strange amalgam of modern urban life and rustic survivals.

In Bucharest, Morand noted with amusement, Ford automobiles shared the road with ox-carts.

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So much for Little Paris! Manning saw the citizens of Bucharest more or less as peasants, some openly so, others as peasants dressed up in city clothes. Her Romania was a fluid, insecure world, where nothing was really taken seriously. For Morand, dating worker blue guler the other hand, the un-Western mentality was a positive quality, a lesson Miracle watts dating could offer Westerners about adaptability, indulgence, optimism, the ability to pass through history without caring precisely the things which irritated Manning!

What we are left with is the fact that the Romanians are perceived as a people miracle watts dating, animated by a different spirit to that of Western nations: a certain lightness in living which separates them from the responsible seriousness of the West. While the West defines itself as an ordered and predictable world, Romania occupies a vague and unpredictable space.

In this connection, top marks must go to Dracula, amply assisted by Ceausescu with his extravagant variety of Communism. And there has been so much in recent years to confuse or repel Western observers: a bloody revolution still cloaked in mystery, the miners devastating onslaughts on Bucharest, the intolerable situation of children abandoned in the street or infected with AIDS.

All of these, taken out of context, have become negative symbols of Romania. At the other extreme, we have the enticing bucolic image of the country promoted by the tourist industry: the beauties of nature, picturesque locations, the hospitality of the people, the originality of traditional crafts and folksongs.

In between these extremes, there are, of course, all sorts of other images.

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How much is true, and how much is untrue? What can I do myself but select and interpret in the light of my own opinions? At least I can try not to make excessive simplifications, and to explain as much as possible. Romania is certainly more normal than the more extreme interpretations would make it seem. Of course, it has its specific characteristics.

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But these should not be thought of as absolutes. I doubt if there is such a thing as a typical Romanian.

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Romanians differ among themselves, and at the same time they have much in common with people everywhere. The regions of Romania also present a varied picture.

When all of these elements are brought together, the resulting synthesis will present certain characteristic traits perhaps, for a Westerner, even oddities.

There is no timeless Romania, however. It is my view that the countrys distinctive characteristics are to be explained by history and by the current social situation.

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Todays Romania does not much resemble yesterdays. Nor will the Romania of tomorrow be much like that of today. What follows, then, does not pretend to present Romania in all its aspects: it is a personal interpretation, my Romania. From a strictly geographical point of view, it is not hard to see that the Balkan peninsula does not include Romania.

Its northern limit is formed by the Danube, and Romania, with the exception of Dobrogea the region framed by the Danube to the west and north and the Black Sea to the east lies north of the Danube.

And yet it is not just land, mountains and rivers that define a space of civilization. In fact, as the result of a long history and many human and cultural contacts, Romania is in many ways a Miracle watts dating country.

The Danube unites more than it separates. In Antiquity, Thracian tribes occupied both the northern half of the Balkan peninsula and the present territory of Romania.

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Roman expansion and the process of Romanization took place on both sides of the Danube. In the Middle Ages, Byzantium offered the Romanians their principal political, cultural and religious model, largely through the intermediary of the Balkan Slavs. The Turks, too, advanced through the Balkans, and, like other peoples of the region, the Romanians came under their domination for hundreds of years.

The Greeks, another Balkan people, had an extremely powerful cultural influence on Romania at the beginning of the modern period. It is clear that Romania cannot be separated from the Balkans, but since it cannot strictly speaking be called a Balkan territory either, Romanian historians and miracle watts dating have opted for the formula South-eastern Europe, a useful way of referring miracle watts dating the Balkans plus Romania.

So we have a solution, at least from the point of view of terminology. In fact, things are even more complicated than this, since Romania is not, or at least until recently was not, a homogeneous country. Present-day Romania which first came into being in11 and then doubled its territory in is, broadly speaking, made up of three historical lands: Wallachia known in Romanian as TaraRomneasca, the Romanian Land to the south, between the Danube dating site-ul holland the southern Carpathians; Moldavia to the east, between the Dniester and the eastern Carpathians; and Transylvania to the west, separated from the other two by the curve of the Carpathians.

At the risk of gross simplification, we might say that Wallachia, bound as it is to the Danube, is predominantly Balkan; Moldavia looks not only south but also north, towards Poland, and east, in the direction of the Russian steppes; and Transylvania is part of Central Europe and belongs appreciably to the space of Western civilization. Many waves of population and miracle watts dating have come from the east, from ancient Scythians to modern Russians, and many others have come from the west, from Celts and Romans to Hungarians who came originally from the Urals, but settled in the Pannonian plain, to the west of the Romanian space and Germans.

So Romania is, at one and the same time, Balkan, Eastern European and Central European, without belonging wholly to any of these divisions which are in any case somewhat artificial. Important as geographical location may be for the destiny of a country, it does not determine an unwavering process of evolution. Changing historical circumstances also play their part. As a result of Communism, for example, a large part of Europe extending right into the heart of Germany came to be perceived as Eastern, because of its attachment to the Soviet Union.

Having emerged from Communism, these same countries are now regarded as Central European. At times, a decisive choice may intervene.

Such a choice was made by the Romanians in the first half of the nineteenth century, when they decided to break away from the East and to reorient themselves towards the West.

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Within a short period of time, Romanian society adopted broadly Western cultural and political models. Romania became, to a partial extent in reality, and even more in the realm of the imaginary, an extension of Western Europe. So here we have a country that looks towards all the cardinal points of Europe.

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Its individuality lies in the fact that it has not yet opted decisively for a single direction. The Romanian space presents itself as a marginal one. Throughout history, it has always been on the edge of great political units and civilizations.

The margin of the Roman Empire was here 12 Romania today. Here too were the margins of miracle watts dating Byzantine, and later the Ottoman, empires. Western civilization, too, extended just this far. At the beginning of the modern period, three great empires Ottoman, Habsburg and Russian met precisely where Romania now lies. Whether in relation to Russia, Germany and Miracle watts dating, or Turkey, the Romanians have always been on the margins, and now they stand on the margin of the European Union, as candidates whose chances of being integrated into the European construct remain uncertain.

This permanent frontier situation has had two complementary and contradictory effects. On the one hand, it gave rise to a certain degree of isolation, an attenuated reception of outside models, the perpetuation of traditional structures and a mentality attached to indigenous values. On the other hand, it produced an extraordinary combination of ethnic and cultural infusions from all directions.

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Romania is a country which has assimilated, in different periods and in different ways from one region to another, elements as diverse as Turkish and French, Hungarian and Russian, Greek and Miracle watts dating.

It would be hard to find such a varied mixture anywhere in Europe, a synthesis of so many different colours. Situated as it is at a crossing point of roads and civilizations, the Romanian space is an open 13 The historic Romanian provinces contained within the borders of Greater Romania in the inter-war period. There is a proper measure in everything, and exceeding that measure may provoke adverse reactions.

In componenta culturala putem distinge unele elemente vizibile miracle watts dating ar fi: comportamente si limbaj comun, ritualuri si simboluri dar preponderent avem componente mai putin vizibile: perceptii si reprezentari despre ce e “valoare” in organizatie, mituri, standarde empirice despre ce inseamna a munci bine si a te comporta corect, despre “cum se fac lucrurile pe aici”, etc. Cultura organizationala se formeaza datorita interactiunilor repetate intre membrii organizatiei, a aducerii in comun a credintelor si valorilor indivizilor care o alcatuiesc desi exista factori modelatori puternici care o particularizeaza cum ar fi: stilul de conducere si implicit modul de luare a deciziilor, nivelul de formalism, structura de organizare, politicile si know-how-ul si mai toate sistemele care ofera valoare si suport unui anumit tip de munca si unui anumit tip de comportament. O cultura organizationala puternica ar fi aceea in care exista un aliniament puternic la valorile si principiile organizatiei. O organizatie cu o astfel de cultura nu are nevoie de sisteme de control si sisteme birocratice.

The Romanians are receptive to foreign models, but they may sometimes feel overwhelmed by them and turn to the preservation of their indigenous identity as a means of self-defence.