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I noticed that the same sectors that received the most funding from the state budget had also applied for EU funds. The Romanian cultural and artistic context oscillates between two trends: an attempt to recover the art from before , and an enthusiastic alignment to current international trends in art, seen also in an effort to re-create history. They introduce the new morphology of "art" and "culture," as used in EU documents, and discuss how they are reflected in programs developed by the Ministry of Culture and in assessment reports drawn up by various Romanian experts and representatives of the Council of Europe , as part of the evaluation program of national cultural policy, published in the 11 Mircea Muthu, Balcanismul literar românesc, vol. This need for external validation shows uncertainty and distrust towards our own values. The first ample lexicographic writing accomplished in the Romanian space, based on the Romanian language and written with Latin letters is of particular importance for examining the evolution of our old literary writing.

I have in mind the structural or semantic loan translation, by which the grammatical case, for example, was called cdere fall in 17th and 18th century texts. The Slavonic mediation could not change the effect of the first Greco-Latin model.

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Thus, Marea cea din mijloc de pmnt the Midland Sea designated the Mediterranean Sea in our first geographical writings. This answer, characteristic of the self-sufficiency gained by the cultured man, and ornate with the attendant explanatory parenthesis, goes as follows: Eu pe mine niciodat nu m chem au n-locul-numelui gramatica n-ai citit, unde arat c m n-locul-numelui eu de cderea-cea-chemtoare se lipsete?

However, for the theme discussed here, the references made so far, which can be supplemented by many others I am thinking, for example, of the influences of Latin writing recorded by specialists in texts written in the Cyrillic alphabet or of the influences of the same orthographic model acting upon some texts written in a Magyar, Polish or German orthographic mannerhave, on the whole, a smaller importance than two original writings, both belonging to the linguistic domain, in which the Latin model was integrally adopted.

Speed ​​dating culturel is the case of two very important old Romanian texts, little known, unfortunately, not only in philological education: the first dictionary with a Diversit et Identit Culturelle en Europe Romanian basis, entitled Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum3, and the first original grammar of the Romanian language, written in Latin, entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae4.

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Old Romanian writing was dominated by textual models and patterns assimilated by way of influences or the exclusive mediation of Slavonic. Two linguistic writings, Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum Caransebe, aboutthe first original dictionary based on the Romanian language, and Institutiones linguae Valachicae Criana, aboutthe first grammar of the Romanian language written in Latin, attest to the explicit use of a Latin model in an age in which the whole of our culture was still strongly influenced by Slavonic models.

Both are entirely original texts, meant to present the structure and characteristics of the Romanian language to foreigners who know or speak Latin. The presence in the two titles of the determiner Valachicum explicitly indicates the cultural belonging of the intended readership.

The first original dictionary of the Romanian language, entitled Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, is kept in the manuscript section of the University Library Etvs Lornd in Budapest, where it could have ended up through an acquisition from the first half of the 19th century. The characteristics of the paper the colour, consistency and origin and of the handwriting the sort of ink and the shape of the lettersas well as the aspect of some of the pages show that the volume we know today resulted from the joining of two independent manuscripts.

The other 91 pages were added at the beginning of the 18th century for the copying of several Latin quotations Connotationes ex speed ​​dating culturelalphabetically ordered, but due to the small number of fragments transcribed, most of the pages were left blank.

The two parts of the manuscript were adjoined beforewhen one of the owners of the lexicon, an envoy of the Western Church, wrote down the names of several places he visited in southern Transylvania and in Hunedoara, in an Itinerarium written on the last pages.

Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum is written by a sole person, in Latin alphabet and Magyar orthography. The author of the text, a Romanian intellectual who knew Latin very well, also made numerous modifications in 3 The text was edited in the volume Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum, Editura Academiei Romne, Bucureti, For details regarding the text see the volume entitled Institutiones linguae Valachicae. The lexicon was also annotated in several places by three later readers, one of whom translated a few title entries into Hungarian.

The paper fibre analysis of the older part of the manuscript in the University Library in Budapest shows that Dictionarium Valachico-Latinum was written around the year According to the opinion formulated by B.

Hasdeu, the discoverer and first exegete of the text, it had been written in the last decades of the 17th century, while Grigore Creu, the author of the first complete edition, dated the writing of the lexicon around A series of linguistic particularities phonetic forms and regional dialect wordsthe use of Hungarian orthography for the writing of Romanian words, as well as the presence as separate entries of several place names in the south-western corner of Romania prove that the text was compiled in the Caransebe area.

For this reason, Speed ​​dating culturel Creu called the lexicon Anonymus Caransebesiensis, thus replacing the old name, Anonymus Lugoshiensis, given by B.

The emerging cultural interest at the EU level is seen in connection with europa dating app on iphone social policies and the issues raised by them in recent years, particularly in light of the EU enlargement.

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The European Commission encourages culture through cultural policy and cultural integration as one of the EU interest zones competition policy and industrial policy but also by financing cultural programs e.

Culture Programme, The EU encourages the implementation of these directives, yet at the level of the Member States this approach remains challenging.

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Regarding Speed ​​dating culturel cultural policies, we should mention that untilin Romania there was no discussion regarding cultural policy2, except at an ideological level. It was all about socialist culture and the Council of Socialist Education and Culture. The Ministry of Culture was one of the first ministries created after However, only after joining the Council of Europe in did we encounter the first attempt to assess the Romanian cultural policy, and the finding was that there are no defined lines for a cultural strategy.

The first attempt to create a strategy was doomed to failure. Only inunder the pressure of the EU accession, was a ten-year strategy completed. It was devised for the Ministry of Culture, using money made available by the European Commission under the Phare program, known as the first coherent strategy for cultural development Romanian.

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The period chosen for the research is in the rangeas the first Romanian cultural strategy was validated in speed ​​dating culturel the next 10 years. Also, most of speed ​​dating culturel laws relating to culture about 40 - see chapter Romanian Cultural Policy were issued prior to This interval includes pre-accession and post-accession to the European Union; therefore, one can trace the influences of the European directives and programs funded by the EU on the Romanian cultural policy.

Internationally, under the aegis of UNESCO, the economic dimension of culture was recognized and cultural industries have been demarcated, particularly because of the concerns about cultural resources and cultural inequalities between North and South. This new approach, embodied in the emphasis on competition and industrial policy and social inclusion has sparked a new dynamic in the process of creating cultural policy and brought criticism on the economic and social goals of the European directives that are too large at the expense of culture and the cultural product.

Diversité Et Identité Culturelle en Europe (DICE) 4 (FULL TEXT)

From the perspective of 3 A. It shall respect their essential State functions, including ensuring the territorial integrity of the State, maintaining law and order and safeguarding national security. In particular, national security remains the sole responsibility of each Member State. My approach incorporates the concept of "cultural hybridity," as understood by Homi Bhabha in The Location of Culture,9 in the sense that the influences that lead to the cultural un-homely become a border which opens perspectives for a new cultural stage.

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Structure and methodology The context of cultural policies is complex and, thus, it is necessary to use different methods and approaches. The paper is structured into five chapters. The Introduction presents the research theme, objectives, and methodology.

The Theoretical Framework introduces the conceptual framework concepts used throughout the paper: cultural policy, European cultural 9 Homi K. The current challenges of the European Union related to global competitiveness, migration and terrorism, and the threats to democracy, impose speed ​​dating culturel better understanding of the processes and structures that have shaped Europe.

For the theoretical research, secondary bibliography analysis is used books, articles, official documents. The part allocated to culture in Romania has 3 sections. The first one, based on path dependence theory, tries to restore the context in which the policy-making process takes place.

The second one presents more specifically the influence of the Balkans and Central and Eastern Europe for our identity.


The third one reflects the political and religious dimensions of the region we are living in. Findings: The fall of communism, the speed ​​dating culturel of the great powers, the ethnic element, the distinctions between East and West, Central Europe as a new identity, the search for a center, the process of transition and indeterminacy were the starting points of my research, using the path dependence theory. I was trying to distinguish, on the one hand, the labels used for us by those whom we count as others--as well as our own perception, on the other hand - then examine the negotiation process between the two and the new construction of identity that could hybridize and then re-hybridize culture.

Romanian culture, or Eastern, Balkan and communist culture, for that matter, is influenced by the West and is given a new identity albeit a hybrid one and is intersected with European culture EU integrationundergoing a new process of hybridization. In this process, space and time offer the framework not only for distinct realities, but also for continuous realities. The concept of hybridization is equivalent to the "unstable equilibrium" speed ​​dating culturel, which describes the overlapping of those marks that define the distinctive cultural collective destiny.

The church gained a privileged position after the fall of communism.

  • Theme and research objectives The research theme is related to the process of creating cultural policies in post-communist Romania, the influence of the European directions for culture in this process and the way the national and European identity are constructed in this new socio-political context.
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But this lack of distinction between church and state inhibited democratic political development. Moreover, the Romanian Orthodox Church hierarchy does not act in a manner that is likely to ensure the proper functioning of liberal democracy in this country. The third part is dedicated to cultural policy in Romania and comprises 5 sections.

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The first four sections are devoted to the general framework of dating și ascultând intestinul tău policy in Romania, trying to define the terms, to bring forth the historical context, and to present the objectives as well as the legislation and funding.

They introduce the new morphology of "art" and "culture," as used in EU documents, and discuss how they are reflected in programs developed by the Ministry of Culture and in assessment reports drawn up by various Romanian experts and representatives of the Council of Europeas part of the evaluation program of national cultural policy, published in the 11 Mircea Muthu, Balcanismul literar românesc, vol. Care ed. Compendium of Cultural Policies in Europe This is due to the fact that information is recent and there is a relatively small distance from the proposed research periodthis argument being balanced by the speed at which information spreads at this level today, the multitude of European cultural initiatives and the cross-cultural synergy created through funding programs.

The exchange of information takes place simultaneously with the speed ​​dating culturel of national policies, also influencing them. The reflection on the process of policy making is less substantial as compared with presentation of data, analysis of cultural practices or cultural products. The report of Liviu Chelcea, Anca Becuţ and Bianca Balsan for Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, conducted as a result of the collaboration between the Council of Europe and ERIC arts, has the most comprehensive description of Romanian cultural policy, with milestones, data and information about the actors involved.

I defined policies as a form speed ​​dating culturel government — in the terms of Michel Foucault - which includes institutions, procedures, tests, methods and strategies to exercise power over people, but also the conceptualization of these purely administrative and institutional constructions.

It is influenced by historical heritage lack of tradition and institutions and the external context globalization and EU with challenges and benefits. Nationalism and extremist tendencies - clinging to the past or uncritically taking over Western patterns - are obstacles to the development process.

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Romanian culture and cultural policies has undergone different phases in the last decade. It went through communist censorship, passed through a troubled period of transition after the revolution, reaching the stages of pre-EU accession, and then post-accession, when cultural policies had as a goal following the European directive of culture, facing nowadays the actual challenges of Europe and its own continuous identity crises and post- communist dilemmas.

Culture is deeply related to the perception of national identity, tradition, representation and politics.

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  • На переднем плане возникли деревья.
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The influence of European directives can be understood if we consider that the beginning of the process of creating cultural policy in Romania took place simultaneously with the EU accession process and there was no tradition of cultural policies prior to that time. The period chosen for the research: is illustrative. Most of the laws related to culture were issued before 40 laws.

The degree of decentralization is an indicator both for the transition process and for the involvement of other actors outside the stateas well as for the internal and external cooperation.

In the Romanian context, the discussion regarding the relationship between the EU and the Member States in terms of decision and authority overlaps with the national issue of centralization in the area of culture. Through the statistical data, sociological analysis and economic diagnosis made and transmitted by the Center for Research Consultancy in the Field of Culture CCCDC, established in under the Ministry of Culturecultural policies could be better correlated with the speed ​​dating culturel of Romanian culture.

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These make visible the strategy applied in the field of culture: see the example of the Romanian policy — heritage was a priority the Minister of Culture, Ion Caramitru, developed a strategy for the cultural heritage that led to the development of tourism, with a positive impact on the economybut at the expense of other cultural sectors an aspect that was criticized by the Council of Europe in In the current development plan I noticed as a priority "a new branding strategy, with focus on Eastern Europe and the Balkans, the plan outlined by the Ministry of Culture in collaboration with the Romanian Cultural Institute.

The third sector is important in creating cultural policy, but there are still difficulties regarding its participation in this process. The cultural heritage and the lack of tradition in this respect are some of the main reasons for low representation. However, the existing initiatives see the group of or, later on, the Active Culture or Cultural Coalition Independent Sector ; together with the advice and funding from the EU are important opportunities for development.

The state remains the main legislator and financer for culture. There are also European funds e. The main areas of these projects were cultural heritage and arts performances. I noticed that the same sectors that received the most funding from the state budget had also applied for EU funds. We could conclude that the European directions of speed ​​dating culturel, those that are promoted and financed by European funds have the most visible profile in Romania.

This is speed ​​dating culturel in the way budget funds are distributed, as well.