Valorile parametrilor estimativi ai modelului au fost dați de rezultatele cuprinse în tabelul 5. Key-words: progress of the society, university library, digital library, databases, electronic services, modern opportunities. The Need for Positive Discrimination towards the Less Numerous Romanian Population in the Region All the facts described so far clearly show that, in an environment where the local Hungarian minority not only holds a dominant political position, but also plays leading economic and cultural roles, the provision of special legal protection is no longer required. Comunitatea universitară a beneficiat de o varietate de servicii electronice: Sesiuni Internet — 46 , Sesiuni Catalogul on-line — 80 , ModLex — , EBSCO — 2 , Sumar Scanat — , Expoziţia Achiziţii recente pe pagina WEB — 5 prezentări de documente , Buletine Achiziţii recente — 24 4 titluri , Expoziţia Publicaţiile profesorilor universitari — 51 documente cu scanare-copertă, scanare-sumar, Expoziţii tematice electronice — Nu în ultimul rând, grupurile de interese ar trebui să aibă în vedere ce procedură legislativă trebuie folosită pentru a adopta un anumit act comunitar: co-decizia se deosebeşte de consultare când vine vorba de Parlamentul European, la fel cum votul prin majoritate calificată nu înseamnă acelaşi lucru cu unanimitatea în cadrul Consiliului. Responsibility toward the environment has become an important vector of every project regarding tourism development, and is a must to be considered a key element of the concept to sustainable tourism development of th erepublic of Moldova.
Rationale Despite the fact that the Romanian system of ethnic minority protection is highly valued by European institutions as an eloquent example of interethnic harmony, some representatives of the Hungarian minority in Romania continue to allege that the rights and liberties of this ethnic minority are consistently infringed by the Romanian authorities.
The main sections of the Romanian relevant legislation which serve to dismantle such unfounded accusations are included in Appendix 1.
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The leaders of certain unauthorized Hungarian civil associations such as the National Szeckler Council — CNS or the Hungarian National Council of Transylvania — CNMA have been seeking, for the last four years, to misinform the European Union and other international organizations with regard to alleged abuses committed by the Romanian authorities against Hungarian ethnics. Due to this geographical location, South-Eastern Transylvania has always been an area of cultural and demographic interchange and confluence.
Harghita and Covasna are the only counties in Romania where Hungarian ethnics represent the majority population, according to the results of the census. The total population of the Harghita county numbers The During the last centuries, given the distinctive conditions in the Covasna and Harghita counties, we have witnessed an extensive process of assimilation of the Romanian population by materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking Szeckler and Hungarian communities.
This undeniable fact was made clear by the results of population and confessional censuses.
The assimilation of the Romanians by the Szeckler ethnic minority was a century-long, natural, peaceful and slow process. However, there were also ethnic and confessional pressures and constraints. The Hungarian assimilation process, on the other hand, was enforced at times by violent means, by forcing the Hungarian-speaking Romanians in the mixed-population villages to adopt Hungarian-like religious beliefs. This process was planned and implemented by policy-makers, starting with the second half of the XIXth century.
However, the current nationality structure of the three counties is by no means that of a single Hungarian ethnic block. Contrary to this demographic reality, Hungarian leaders are set to gain autonomy on ethnic grounds, ignoring the position and interests of the non-Hungarian population in the region.
This paper is intended to explain the difference between de jure autonomy on ethnic grounds, which is the goal of Hungarian leaders in Romania, and the actual autonomy of the Covasna and Harghita counties, which has already been achieved under its most important aspects administrative, cultural, economic, etc.
The current legal framework in Romania fully guarantees the protection of national minorities, allowing Hungarians to pestera chauvet dating controverse exercise their educational and cultural identity rights, at standards above the European level.
The materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking is also represented, at a decision-making level, in other state institutions. In the Covasna and Harghita counties, where the Hungarians make up the majority group, it is the Romanian population who is denied access to the decision-making process, is deprived of any advantages and is the object of discrimination.
Therefore, a legal framework ensuring protection against such factors is needed for the Romanian nationals, who represent a regional minority group subject to discrimination and marginalization on Romanian territory. The less numerous Romanian population living in Covasna and Harghita is de facto confronted with all the disadvantages of a materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking group, without enjoying de jure the benefits of the legal status granted to national, religious, sexual or other minorities.
The following sections will introduce the reader to a few vital aspects that define the socio-political reality in South-Eastern Transylvania. It is noticeably the first time in the history of a democratic country when the beginning and end of a consultative process are uncertain.
Like any other state matter, the referendum cannot be organized by a non-State entity and without due consideration to all specific prerogatives. Any individual who organizes a referendum outside the materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking of the State can be held accountable for endangering the very integrity of the State; - A government that accepts the interference with a state matter in any way other than the ones stipulated in the Constitution and in national materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking is itself guilty of abetting an action directed against the State and which violates the main contract based on collective will: the Constitution.
If it is a referendum, it is legally binding; if materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking, it is an opinion poll at the most. It is hard to say if and how the message got across to the population, particularly in the rural areas.
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If we analyze the structure of the local governments, we notice that they are almost exclusively controlled by Hungarian ethnics, even when, under the law, the Romanian population should also be represented in such bodies, thus depriving the latter of a right stipulated in the Resolution of December 1, However, it is unclear why this potential could not be properly exploited, given that Hungarian interests are all too well represented at the materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking of local governments.
The new rights granted will not put an materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking to the demands directed at the center, and the situation could gradually escalate to serious threats against the State, usually in favor of other state structures newly created or foreign.
According to the Constitution and the relevant legislation, minorities are granted: the use of their mother tongue at all levels of education, as well as in administration and justice; political, administrative and parliamentary representation; support for religious groups; restitution of the properties seized by the communist authorities; fostering of minority cultures and traditions.
All these rights are unanimously recognized and have long been put into effect.
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In line with the European legislation and practices, the new public administration principles enforced in Romania provide for the decentralization and assignment of increased competences to local governments. According to the new regulations, local public authorities can now manage more resources than in the past, resources that had been previously managed by the central government. Likewise, local authorities in Romania now have broad competences as far as the activities of their various sub-systems are concerned, mainly targeted at the field of culture and education.
Unfortunately, the education process in most of these schools is noticeably ethnocentric.
Many of the graduates of such schools where education is imparted in Hungarian, despite their high qualifications in Romanian language, do not have the minimum knowledge required for sustaining a general conversation in the official language of the country where they reside as citizens.
In line with the European legislation and practices, Romania defends the right of minority citizens to express their specific character and to develop their culture, language, religion, traditions and customs. Hungarian ethnics are allowed to freely express, maintain and develop their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity and to preserve and develop their culture under all aspects.
The Hungarian minority has its own cultural institutions — theaters, museums, libraries, cultural centers.
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The State is actively involved in financing their activities, publishing newspapers and books and broadcasting Hungarian radio and TV programs. The counties of Covasna and Harghita have numerous Hungarian public or private cultural institutions Appendix no.
Most of these institutions were also founded inas a result of ethnic-based separation. The county, municipal and town museums became Szeckler museums, changing not only their names, but also the structure of their patrimony, staff and research programs.
Cultural centers, as well as county, municipal and town libraries in the two counties are in a similar situation. In full compliance with the provisions of international documents, Romania guarantees the freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Religious groups are free to choose their leaders and to appoint their clergy and lay staff, with no state interference. Specific instruction is provided in the theological schools, faculties and institutes of religious groups. As a result, the Church became one of the main pillars of the existing autonomy in South-Eastern Transylvania. All Hungarian churches, be they Materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking Catholic, Reformed, Unitarian or Evangelical, regained their patrimony, which had been nationalized by the communist authorities, and benefited from the support of the Romanian State, like all other religious groups established under the law.
A major redress action of a truly historical value was the restitution of over one million hectares of land and of a number of important buildings to the Hungarian ethnics, churches, confessional schools and community associations. However, the significance of this action was not properly valued, as it failed to measure up to the political idea that generated it and was perceived as a meaningless political transaction.
Other important indicators of the Hungarian autonomy in the counties of Covasna and Harghita are: the numerous publishing and printing houses, the dense network of bookshops most of which are local branches of Hungarian bookshopsstores and newsagent stands supplied by means of a specially created structureand the network of shops selling craft objects and Hungarian traditional items. Hungarian-language media include, apart from the written press, a significant number of local and regional radio and TV stations, as well as programs of Hungarian radio and TV stations, including those broadcast by DUNA TV Appendix no.
Cable companies started to translate into Hungarian the materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking of the main international TV channels.
Unfortunately, this is yet another situation when part of the local Hungarian-language press is engaged into an ethnocentric discourse and takes an aggressive stand on identity issues, which leads to intolerance and discrimination against Romanian ethnics.
Many of the objectives of ethnic-based autonomy in the counties materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking Covasna and Harghita are put into practice by the Hungarian-speaking civil society, by the numerous civic, cultural, sports, travel associations, etc.
Inthere were NGOs only in Harghita, out of which materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking in the field of economic development, tourism, sport and society, focused on Hungarian identity issues, 12 on Romanian identity issues and 25 promoted multiculturalism.
All of them receive constant and substantial funding from local councils, the Romanian Government, the Hungarian Government and the Hungarian diaspora in Western countries. Only a few of the Hungarian associations and foundations advocate multiculturalism and interethnic dialogue.
Most of them boast generous objectives of an educational, cultural and religious nature, formally justified by the need to preserve national traditions and specificity, but destined, in fact, to strengthen the status of the local Hungarian minority as part of the Hungarian nation and to gain autonomy under its various forms — individual, cultural, administrative and, in the end, territorial.
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Using a strategy of symbolic control over the public space, designed by Materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking leaders and other experts in the field, the Hungarian local authorities materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking over monuments, memorial plaques written only in Hungariancrucifixes and other symbols marking the year commemoration of the Hungarian State and years since the Hungarian settlement in Transylvania.
The involvement of national minorities in general and of the Hungarian ethnic group in particular in political life and in local and regional government is another undeniable fact. Ever since the first parliamentary elections on September 27,the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania UDMR has constantly obtained seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, establishing its own parliamentary group.
The deputies and golf online dating representing the Hungarian minority are part of the leadership structure of the two parliamentary chambers. UDMR politicians held important ministerial positions in various governments, including the minister of state position deputy prime minister in the term of office and controlled several national agencies.
The Local Public Administration Act set forth a number of actions meant to implement the local autonomy principle.
Following the elections, Hungarian ethnics are represented in the local public administration bodies as described in Appendix no. The ethnic origin of councilors, mayors and deputy mayors of most towns and villages in the two counties clearly demonstrates that local power is practically concentrated in the hands of the Hungarian ethnics, while the Romanians are not represented in the Local Councils of multiethnic towns and villages and, therefore, are not able to advance and promote their own interests and identity values.
All these considerations conclusively indicate that, in the counties of Covasna and Harghita, ethnic-based autonomy is a fact and, given the increased autonomy and decentralization process, is likely to result in the establishment of an ethnic enclave, unless the Romanian State finds a way to put an end to such evolution.
The Hungarian local community is a high status ethnic group, a symbolical rather than actual minority, permanently involved in the local apparatus of power, monopolizing all the resources and displaying strong ethnocentric traits. As Hungarian ethnics dominate the local political arena, materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking need of legal protection is obsolete. It is the Romanian rather than the Hungarian community who is in need of protection in order to preserve its ethnic identity.
The Need for Positive Discrimination towards the Less Numerous Romanian Population in the Region All the facts described so far clearly show that, in an environment where the local Hungarian minority not only holds a dominant political position, but datând vârsta universului plays leading economic and cultural roles, the provision of special legal protection is no longer required.
Under these circumstances, the Romanians are those in need of protection in order to preserve and assert their ethnic identity, and not the Hungarians, in the counties where the latter are the most numerous.
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The Romanian population, the most numerous in Romania, has a minority status in the counties of Covasna and Harghita and is under strong pressure given the autonomist tendency displayed across the Hungarian society.
Irrespective of the conditions imposed by actual local developments, the steps taken by the Hungarian leaders have followed two complementary lines: the exploitation of the administrative decentralization process in order to gain control over several important social fields in those two counties where the Hungarians are the most numerous ethnic group; the initiation of a process of assimilation of the Romanians by the Hungarians in the region, by means of excluding the Romanians from the local decision-making process and thereby forcing them to leave those counties.
As a consequence, the gap occurred due to the departure of many Romanian professionals after December is constantly growing.
Against this background, the dissatisfaction, disappointment and lack of perspective of the Romanian population as concerns its present and future status are growing deeper in this area, where the Hungarian monoculture is gaining ground day by day.
The lack of an effective protection of the ethnic identity of the Romanians belonging to less numerous communities, alongside an interethnic cohabitation climate opposed to alterity, have perpetuated and increased the sense of frustration and marginalization among the Materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking population in the counties of Covasna and Harghita.
The Romanians living in those counties do not enjoy a proper legal, institutional and logistic framework so as to counter by their own capabilities the consequences of the ethnocentric and exclusive policies of the local government, under the permanent administration of UDMR. Although the idea of a unitary strategy on issues related to the preservation of the linguistic, cultural and religious identity has been unanimously accepted of late, things have not progressed beyond the initial emotional approach.
For example, the Hungarian minority is the most numerous in certain regions of Romania; the Romanians, who are in a minority in these regions, should be protected by the provisions of this protocol. In other words, it should take into account certain political, cultural, social and economic variables that make up a specific communication code between the inhabitants of this region, Romanians yong hwa și seo hyun dating Hungarians, a code required by the reversed majority—minority ratio.
The position of the representatives of the Romanian civil society in Covasna, Harghita and Mureş as to the steps of the Hungarian leaders looking for autonomy on ethnic criteria and, generally, as to the status of the Romanians in these counties, as a result of the reversed majority— inority ratio, has been expressed on various occasions, such as in the Declaration of the materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking of the Romanian population in Covasna, Harghita and Mureş— mayors, deputy mayors, local and county councilors, parliamentarians, clergymen and leaders of civic organizations — adopted during a meeting held at Izvorul Mureşului, in the county of Harghita, on November 18th, Appendix no.
Arguments against the Ethnic Separatism in the Covasna, Harghita and Mureş Counties The sociological research carried out by the Institute for Geopolitical Studies and the Covasna-Harghita Center for European Studies indicates that the administrative organization on ethnic criteria endangers the cohesion of present-day European states, which is actually meant as an extremely well-integrated system. The idea that the main factor behind the European states' cohesion is the civic-national, and not the ethnic materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking — the latter having a strong disintegrating or centrifugal potential — is widely accepted.
According to the same research, as sociologist Codrina Datând peste cincizeci online specifies, administrative autonomy should by no means be construed in ethnic terms, as modern administration has the same principles wherever it is implemented, and modern sociology, especially due to Max Weber, has clarified the rational and therefore universal nature of modern administration.
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The application of ethnic criteria in the administrative organization field leads to ethnic cleansing practices, namely to the thesis of the ethnocratic state, the hardest blow that could be dealt to a national state, member of the European Union. While understanding the legitimate desire of the Hungarians in Transylvania in general, and of those in Covasna and Harghita in particular, to preserve and assert their identity, as well as their concern about future challenges mainly about the decreasing number of Hungarian ethnicswe will show that the problems encountered by the Hungarians living in Romania are not caused by a lack of autonomy.
The main dating viori of most Hungarian leaders after December has been to raise dividing walls between Romanians and Hungarians, and not to build bridges between the two populations. There is a difference between the behavior of Hungarians in the regions where they are in a minority and of those in the counties where they represent the most numerous group.
It is clear that the approach taken by the originators of the draft law is fundamentally different; - the originators' intention is to regulate the collective rights of ethnic minorities concentrated in certain regions; - a fundamental issue regarding the interethnic relations in Covasna and Harghita refers to the segregation process — materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking of the local Hungarians are looking for segregation, while others consider that segregation — for example, in the educational field — is detrimental to them, especially to the very young generation.
We are not aware of any other instance in which public authority responsibilities are devolved to community management structures defined on ethnic criteria. The draft introduces political autonomy under the guise of cultural autonomy; considering that organizations of national minorities are invested with public authority, they acquire the basic features of a political authority; - we revert to the point that European regulations endorse the cultural development of minorities, but also take into account the need to protect the rights of those members of the majority population living in areas where other nationalities are significant in terms of numbers.
There is no reliable international source claiming that the Romanian legislation does not facilitate the survival, and, moreover, the development of the minorities' identity features; - we reiterate that several provisions of the draft law may result in creating an environment where materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking minorities live separately, and the connections between them and the majority are reduced to a minimum.
We believe that the culture of the majority population is as important for minorities as the cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is for the majority.
In our view, this aspect has been totally ignored by the originators of the draft; - the social, economic and political developments after have generated, among other things, a social gap between the members of the majority and those of materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking minorities.
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Depending on the actual social materiile bazate pe abilități awmaking economic circumstances in the regions with multiple ethnic groups and on their numbers, the deepening of this social gap has various negative consequences on the cohabitation of majority and minority groups.